Overclocking Tutorial / Overclocking Guide / Overclocking Manual
The following are directions Superman used to overclock his super computer. This is a detailed introduction to the overclocking concept. I would suggest you do your homework before trying to overclock anything and not use this (although it could be) as your sole source of information for Overclocking a computer or it’s components… I’ll reiterate several times in this tutorial, ‘Do your homework’.
When “fast is not enough” gamers and hobbyists find and devise new and intriguing ways of taking their hardware to new levels. Even with the fastest chips available, most users still demand more and say that the speed from even the fastest chips aren’t fast enough, or they just blatantly have the need for speed. Think of it as running Dodge Viper with Ms. Universe in the passenger seat, and running that v12 baby on Nitrous Oxide! This is where Overclocking comes into the equation; the means by which users make their processors and other devices run faster than the default manufactures recommended speed setting. Overclocking has become common place with all of the newest hardware devices having the ability to reach overclocked speeds of over 50% above their factory default speed. Not only can you overclock processors, memory and graphics cards can be overclocked too. This leads to faster latency, faster graphic processes and an overall cost savings if done correctly. Screw it up or get gready and your AMD or Pentium will be as good as a can or beer after your body has processed it. When you overclock, do it one component at a time and document everything.
Q. If a processor can achieve higher speeds why don’t manufactures increase their clock speed at the factory level?
A. To regulate the market, making one processor that can range from 3.0 to 5.0 and just regulate speed is easier than making a different one for each speed. Prescott’s are in the entry of this spectrum, and Northwood’s are at the end (Extreme Edition).
Q. Why don’t companies like Dell and Gateway overclock their processors to get competitive edge and give the end user a better machine?
A. Dell and Gateway have agreements with Intel and AMD to use their processors. If Dell began selling overclocked machines, then the processor would lose its warranty and conflict of interest with the processors road maps would hinder the entire market.
Q. I already have my system overclocked, and it runs everything fine… does this mean I successfully overclocked my system?
A. You’re not out of the wood yet. Just because it seems to run fine, the system may still overheat or process with errors. Later we’ll discuss the types of software that monitors everything and checks for processing errors.
Things you should BETTER know
The following you should know before you successfully overclock an AMD or Pentium processor. You need the overclockable processor, an overclocking friendly motherboard, and a plan for a great thermal solution including, but not limited to, a heat sink and extra system cooling fans. Conventional methods are fine until you start getting extreme and greedy. When you overclock your processor, you overclock all the components in your machine. Yes, I said all the components. Since the multiplier is locked you only have one other variable to play with. (100 X 24 = 2400 = 2.4 GHZ) -> The multiplier (24) is always locked, so to modify the outcome (final speed) in this equation, we must modify the Front Side Bus (FSB) variable. Now there are some processors out there that have the multiplier unlocked, or are capable of being unlocked. An interesting little invention called a “speed strip” is a small plastic strip that can be placed between the processor and processor seat to unlock the multiplier. This works by connecting certain pins that determine if the processor is locked or not. The motherboard then detects an open multiplier and allows it to be modified. Did I mention that this only works for AMD? Yup, those Pentiums are not found to be unlockable… but they still are very overclockable. Remind me to talk about the Pentium Extreme Edition processors… J
A few months back I went to a training show for ASUS. ASUS claims to have a board that can overclock just the processor. Yes, unlock the processor from the multiplier and not the FSB. I will post more info here as soon as I find out more. http://www.bleedinedge.com/forum/archive/index.php?t-4329.html)
Check your system for extra fan locations, later in this text will be detailed info on how to configure them. If you have limited fan sockets (less than 2) then you have to consider a new case or modifying the case to allow additional fans.
• If you plan to overclock you system then be sure to select your hardware wisely. There are always overclocking opportunities with any and all hardware. I suggest checking out the reviews on sites like newegg.com. Google words like “p4b800 reviews”. Here you’ll find thousands of people with configurations and outcomes that will fit any budget. Remember that a component damaged by Overclocking is no longer under warranty, so if you’re greedy or do it incorrectly, then you’re screwed like the one holding this computer together.
• Some motherboards are more overclocking-friendly than the others, I suggest Asus, since they have tools for overclockers like Artificial Intelligence (AI) which determines the best settings for optimal configuration. Select a motherboard that has good reviews, don’t experiment or settle for one that’s not reputable because the motherboard and processor is the heart of you overclocking project. Also, if you on a shoe string budget remember that a few dollars more can get you a much better board. Do you homework!
• Once you’ve become an experienced overclocker, you know to keep the processor and the entire system cool and voltage at reasonable levels to ensure stability. Select a case that can handle many fans for optimal airflow, if you need more fans, consider higher air flow fans or modifying vents to add on. Your number one enemy for overclocking is heat.
- Add additional system coolers in the front and back of the case to generate an air flow pattern coming in from the front and exiting at the back.
- Make sure the cooling fans for the power supply sucks hot air out of your system box, and not pushes it in.
- Use thermal compound (do not substitute) between a good and strong heat sink and the processor to ensure great thermal contact and thus optimal heat dissipation. I’ve seen people use butter, candle wax, cocoa butter, ear wax and an array of other substitutes and then wonder why their temps are above normal. I was kidding about the ear wax.
What are the benefits?
• Increased performance with minimum cost
• Satisfaction from achieving it
What are the risks?
• Overclocking may void your system warranty.
• Overclocking may reduce the life-time of your system and components.
• Overclocking may cause system stability issues.
What is clock speed of processor?
The clock speed of a processor is the main factor that determines the computing power of a computer, measured in MHz or GHz. To better understand the concept, imagine your car drives at fixed speed of 1 to 60 mph, although the optimal speed is 50, nothing prevents it from going faster or slower. You want to run at higher speeds only at favorable conditions.
How CPU manufacturers determine the clock speed of a processor?
The manufacturer decides on what speed to stamp on the processor based on the following factors:
• Core, design, and capabilities of the processor itself.
• The thermal stability and characteristics of the processor.
• The most advantageous market conditions.
From the above it is clear that given the right conditions, a processor can be either underclocked or overclocked. An 3000MHz processor can be underclocked to run at 2400 or as low as the motherboard allows, or overclocking to 3500MHz.
How to set the clock speed of a processor?
The actual clock speed of a processor is set by the motherboard. There are two ways to do this.
Hardware jumpers. You can change the jumpers to get different combinations of basic BUS speeds and multipliers. This method is used for most brands of motherboards. It is however inconvenient since you need to actually open the case to access the motherboard and you really have to know what your doing. So if you’re looking for a motherboard that overclocks easily, look for “jumper free” overclockable motherboards.
With software “jumpers” or “jumper free” motherboards, you change the clock speeds (and the core voltage) of a processor using software embedded in the motherboard BIOS. Most overclockers like this option.
What is Overclocking?
This is the process of running the device faster than it is specified to do. Overclocking is an old process that just recently has gone mainstream. Overclocks can range in the 30-50% range with some creative cooling, if not air cooled then liquid (Water or Liquid Nitrogen (Don’t try this). Overclocking achieved by increasing the frequency at which the processor is multiplied or bus speed.
With a successful overclock, the system will run stable and exactly the same as it did at the default factory set frequency, just faster. This often requires more cooling than stock and increasing voltage on processors improving the speed of devices, internal and external, and performance improves in accordance to how much the device is overclocked. If not properly overclocked, usually from overclocking too much, performance can actually degrade, as the processor or is over stressed beyond optimal frequency settings.
Overclocking generally refers to running your CPU, and these days your video card too, at higher internal CPU clock and bus speeds than the manufacturer’s specs for achieving better system performance at little or no cost. In the past, overclocking was simply changing your motherboard’s settings for the next higher CPU Multiplier. It’s not as simple anymore, since both Intel and AMD have locked the multipliers in their CPU’s. As a result, in today’s world the bus speed is usually the only easy way to overclock and achieve CPU speeds that don’t officially exist. Bus speed, as opposed to CPU overclocking changes your whole motherboard’s BUS, affecting PCI, AGP (with all the components attached to them) as well as Memory speed, so in effect you are overclocking everything! Because of the fact you are overclocking your whole system and every component connected to it, one of the necessary requirements is to have good quality components. You have a better chance of reaching higher speeds and still running a stable system with good quality brand name components instead of cheap hardware. Some brands/models of hardware overclock better then others, some don’t overclock very well at all, so it’s a good idea to already have a rock stable system with good quality hardware before you attempt overclocking, since overclocking essentially pushes your system beyond the manufacturer’s specs and adds heat to the equation.
How is Overclocking accomplished?
Overclocking is accomplished by adjusting the frequency of either the CPU multiplier or FSB (front side bus) speed in the Bios of the motherboard. All common day processors have a multiplier locked, meaning that the rate at which the speed is multiplied by the front side bus is not adjustable. Therefore to overclock these processors one must adjust the bus speed. Extreme Edition Pentium processors ARE ALL unlocked… and Some AMD’s are unlocked. Now if you want to save yourself some time and stress, then by an ASUS board that has AI to automatically configure the best configuration. Manually you’ll do just a tad bit better, maybe only 1 or 2%.
FSB speeds are an important aspect of Overclocking because it influences the speed at which all devices connected to the motherboard operate. There are usually three default front side bus settings, 66MHz, 100MHz, and 133MHz. The slowest of the three, 66MHz, and 133MHz the highest, was used by Pentium II processors slower than 350MHz and all previous processors starting with the original Pentium line. Today’s Celerons run at this 100MHz FSB, which is one reason why the Celeron lags so much behind its older Pentium III brother. 133MHz FSB is which PIII processors run today, P4 processors depending on the level you have, can range from 400MHz to even 533MHz and up operate at this frequency.
Pentium IV processors can be overclocked with 103MHz to 112MHz front side bus speeds easily. Of course, anyone can overclock this easily, but most often than not, something else will be required to get an overclock to be successful. More often than not, voltage adjustment will be required. Increasing the amount of power that the processor receives will give it the little extra power to get the processor to be successfully overclocked. Remember that when overclocking, always move up in the smallest increments allowable. Doing otherwise could be harmful for the system
Step 1: On a blank sheet of paper draw various vertical lines spacing them approximately 1 inch apart, and about 4 horizontal lines spaced 2 inches apart. This is the grid you’ll be using to test for optimal configuration. Label the chart from left to right, FSB or Front Side Bus, Crashed, Voltage, leaving the far right box for whatever you wish.
For some reason higher cache, such as a 1.8a 512K 400MHz FBS Pentium 4’s are more successfully overclocked than a 1.8 256K 400MHz FSB Pentium 4’s. So if you have not yet purchased your processor, the “a” higher 512K 400MHz FSB processor should be on your list. If you’re building a system from scratch, use EPOX or ASUS brands, all their boards are very versatile in respect to overclocking.
Step 2: Starting up your system holding down the “DEL” delete key will bring the system into the BIOS. Obviously some computers are different for you may need to read the screen posting to get into BIOS mode. Once in the BIOS browse around using the left/right arrows to change categories, and up/down arrows to browse the current selection… take a few minutes doing this, familiarize yourself.
At the frequency screen set the frequency adjustment to manual, this unlocking the FBS multiplier usually on the far top of the screen. The frequency adjustment also usually has the clock speed reading as hundreds or thousands. Example, 1.8, would read 1800, and 2.0 would read 2000. Some manufacturers have preset settings to automatically overclock the system, ASUS is one. I would recommend this but know how to reset the CMOS of the motherboard first, usually by a jumper or holding contacts together to reset it. If you purchased the motherboard new, then it should come with a semantic, or locate the model and type it into any search engine in a hunt for more info.
Step 3: Using you handy chart write on the next available block the number of the next frequency level. So if the first frequency level is 133, if you using a Pentium 4 it is, then the next frequency level would be 134, then 135, and so on. For every upgrade to the frequency setting restart the computer noting if the startup was successful. If yes, then follow the same instruction to raise the level again. If not then raise the voltage of the processor in the smallest increments available. Restart again and note if it was successful or not. Ideally you should not raise the voltage of the processor more than .2, if you do then you MUST invest in better cooling such as liquid filled heat sinks. Once you have raised the frequency till it crashes and voltage no more than .2 then retain the previous successful frequency, and raise the voltage another .05 to add stability. Restart and run an application such as Si Soft-Sandra to monitor the temperature of the processor, running the application for several hours at full stress. If the temperature rises more than 20% then enter the BIOS and drop the voltage and frequency. Repeat the process until your processor temperature is within the 20% threshold.
There are no unique best settings for every system; however I’ll try to give you a basic guideline for a successful overclocking. If your Motherboard doesn’t support the higher bus speeds than 133, you can still try the rest, get a calculator and figure out the possible combinations yourself remember its Multiplier x FSB = Internal CPU speed.
Bus and Processor speed
The internal clock speed refers to the actual speed that the CPU is operating at. When you go to the store or look up system specs you will see, for example, Pentium 4 2.4Ghz. The 2.4Ghz part refers to the internal operating frequency of the CPU in question. To make this easy just know that is the speed of the processor, 2.4 Giga -Hertz in this case. The higher internal clock of the processor is the faster it processes information and the more you can do with your computer.
The bus speed refers to the actual motherboard and its components. They too run in Giga-Hertz (1000x = Mhz) and run together at different dividers, or fractions of the CPU speed. Your motherboard has traces on it, if you look down at a motherboard and you see all those long lines running all through it to different components that are the bus of the motherboard, data paths to all the components. The Front Side Bus (FSB) by definition is the bus that connects the processor (CPU) and the main Memory (RAM). The PCI bus is the bus that connects all the PCI devices (connected to the PCI expansion slots), as well as the Controller for your Hard Drive and CD-ROM. These are the main buses you have to worry about when overclocking. How this all fits together: It takes the FSB speed (which is also the RAM speed don’t forget) multiplied by the CPU Multiplier to create the Internal Clock speed. For example a FSB speed of 100 MHz times a multiplier of 24 will equal 2400Mhz or 2.4 GHz. In order to get other bus speeds and try to get different Internal CPU speeds, your motherboard needs to have more FSB option settings. Keep in mind when you do overclock the FSB you all major system components, most importantly your memory (RAM) so if you have some modules of some slow cheap pieces of memory they may not like to be overclocked at all. If you buy good brand name memory like Kingston, Micron, you will have a much better chance at overclocking your FSB.
Again, when increasing your FSB speed, you’ll also have to consider all the other devices in your system. Just because the CPU runs stable at the higher speed settings doesn’t mean you have overclocked successfully. Any of the other devices can stop functioning or start causing instability problems. You might need to edit your CMOS and lower some of the settings for the RAM and/or Hard Drives to get your system functioning without problems.
It is a fact that by overclocking you increase the chances of system faults, crashes and overall instability, so if avoiding a crash is crucial, consider buying faster Processor or components, rather than overclocking.
Remember for reference:
PCI Bus = 33Mhz
AGP Bus = 66Mhz
FSB x Multiplier = CPU Internal Clock Speed
FSB x Divider = PCI or AGP Bus Speed
In order to overclock your system successfully, you need the understand the most important issue involved – Cooling. Why? Because is the main reason why an overclock would fail.
Proper Cooling is the MOST important factor in successful overclocking, running a stable system and keeping your CPU in good shape. If your overclocked CPU operates at a higher than specs temperature, it will shorten its life. Other side effects of overheating can be random crashes and unstable system. Generally, today’s processors are designed to work between 85 and 200 degrees Fahrenheit and anything outside the temperature range would result in more unstable system and possible damaging of the CPU. Keep this in mind, cooler is better, try to cool your CPU as much as you can, put a big fat heatsink on it with a big fan to help. Just remember the better cooling solution you choose, the better chances for successful overclocking you have.
Things to remember:
Note: Don’t put the panel back onto your PC until your done testing the stability of your system.
Turn off and unplug the computer, take off the case, get your motherboard manual. Check the current clock speed and multiplier jumper settings on your motherboard, compare them with your manual, and write them down in the motherboard manual. Most manuals have an area for notes so use it. Check the supply voltage jumper settings on your motherboard, compare them with manual and your CPU marking, and write it down. Change the jumper settings for clock speed and/or multiplier according to your manual for the next CPU speed up from the settings currently used. Double check to make sure everything is ok, and that no jumpers have been forgotten about or bumped off.
Does it reach BIOS setup?
If yes, test the system further and work your PC hard as possible.
No? Turn off computer and change jumper to higher amount. If, possible.
If you still shouldn’t reach BIOS setup, forget about overclocking to this speed.
Does it reach full working operation system?
If yes, start your test run by running it for at least a hour. A PC reaches its maximum temp within about 30 min. It’s better to occur crashes or lock ups now, than coming across them when it counts! Like when your chatting with a voluptuous bar dancer and your computer crashed because YOU didn’t follow directions!
If no, try another setting or check your cooling, you also can try some more conservative memory timings in the BIOS setup. This means increasing the wait states or the read/write cycles; but don’t forget to check later if you gained speed by trying some benchmarks, cause there’s no point in overclocking if your memory access is getting slower.
If everything works well – congrats, if not, try another setting, check cooling, play with the voltage (sparingly).
Don’t change supply voltage unless you have to. It only makes the chip hotter.
Don’t ever forget: cooling is most important key to Overclocking!
HOW TO IMPROVE CHANCES FOR A SUCCESSFUL OVERCLOCK
STOP! You better make sure you configure your fans correctly or that hot air can just linger in you case. You want to suck air out and push air in, there is a difference.
The number one problem with most Overclocks is that the processor is generating too much heat and that is what is causing the processor to be unstable. It is VERY important that you monitor temperature levels, mainly the processor. That is why extra cooling with larger heatsinks, more fans, and better airflow is always imperative. Since increasing the voltage of processors greatly increases chances in overclocking, and increasing voltage creates more heat, therefore cooling the processor creates higher chances for overclocking. The best way to start is by getting a larger heatsink for the processor. Adding more fans inside the case will help keep everything cool and will greatly improve chances of overclocking.
Q. I have plenty of fans but my case is still at the same temperature.
A. Superman once made the mistake of putting 20 fans blowing air in, after visiting this website he finally realized that he needs to move air in and out of the fan. Having too many fans pushing air in creates a positive airflow which is fine, BUT too much positive airflow is bad. You don’t want air pushing through the seems and cracks of your DVD burner. Positive airflow will PUSH dust into critical places such as your hard drive and optical lenses. To prevent this try an even number of fans pushing and pulling air. Remember your power supply pushes air out, so try 3 fans in and 2 fans out… This is my SOP. The top of the case is the idea place to pull air out, but if the case has enough then don’t bother drilling or putting fan ducts.
Q. Ok, I got the airflow optimized, but my processor is still running hot:
A. Remember your moving room temperature air into your case. So at maximum efficiency your processor will be room temperature, but this will never happen (unless the computer is off); you’re moving air at room temperature into your case. A fan blowing on you feels cooler because of the moisture on your skin. A processor has no sweat, so at 100% efficiency your processor will be room temperature.
Q. Round ribbon cables, are they any good?
A. Absolutely! Round cables allow maximum airflow within your case. Instead of the air getting blocked by flat, think, unfriendly ribbon cables, use the streamline round ones for IDE and Floppy connections to your motherboard. If you’re using SATA IDE hardware then there is not much more you can do about the ribbons. Round ribbon cables are not made for SATA hardware but only for IDE, I’ve never seen them for SCSI hardware either.
The right motherboard can decide the fate of your Overclocking success. If the board has the right tools, controls and software, then your Overclocking can be tweaked with much more ease than conventional methods giving you a better outcome. Asus is now officially my favorite motherboard manufacturer. I attending a prerelease hardware training session for Intel, Asus was there. I’ve always favored Asus because of there stability, Overclocking technical support and overall business acumen.
Processor Life and Market
As newer products come out, more heat will be generated because of the higher speed that these products achieve. And to counteract the heat, manufacturers shift manufacturing processes to a smaller micron size. The smaller sizes of dies create much less heat, in conversely, faster and more advanced designs. As processors get older, so do their ability to be Overclocked and withstand higher clock speeds. After several processor revisions, processors tend to get more stable, produce less heat, and have higher clock speeds. Customarily once a newer processor is released that processor takes the highest price than its predecessor. When the newest processor is released, the new stepping is given to the slower processors; therefore the processor will have a better theoretical speed it can reach.
Some important factors for successful overclocking
CPU Cooling – Your CPU Heatsink/Fan might do the trick, but it’s very likely you’ll need a top quality combo. Another, often overlooked fact is that a simple Thermal Compound (from Radio Shack) applied between the heatsink and the CPU can provide for much better heat transfer and cooler Processor.
Case Cooling – The temperature inside the case will also increase, as a result of overclocking, heating all of the devices and possibly increasing the chance of a crash. For ATX cases, I’d recommend an additional intake fan and exhaust fan. The size of the case as well as the placement of the cables inside will also affect its cooling, get rounded cables if you can for best air flow in the case and use air filters in front of the intake fans and vents, keep your case cover on for correct airflow and to reduce dust buildup (dust is an important enemy, it acts as an insulator keeping your hardware even warmer). For proper airflow, a simple rule might help reduce heat in your case even further, just install one more exhaust fan than your intake fans – it’s more important to remove warm air from the case, than to blow cold air in.
Quality Components – RAM, Hard Disks, Video Cards all can stop functioning at higher bus speeds, quality components are of course less susceptible to failure under stress. Also, well built, brand name motherboards can definitely make the difference between success and failure. Asus and Epox are two well known very overclockable, easy and friendly motherboards.
Now I promised before to give you a bit more info on processors for you overclockers out there. Let me start off with the Pentium Extreme Edition, yes those super expensive cores.
Extreme Edition processors are at the end of the Northwood spectrum, they CAN be pushed much further, but the failure rate increases exponentially higher. Intel already milked lots of range out of them, so you might be better off Overclocking a Prescott chip. These Cores are unlocked, FULLY unlocked and can be pushed as far as your ready to experiment with. Prescott, the next generation Intel processor, is at the beginning of the clock spectrum. Expect these chips to hit 6-7 GHz when the market is ready. Now the Dual cores are ruling as the preferred Pentium processor. These are actually two processors in one, using the same form factor (same size in general). These dual cores DO NOT HAVE hyper threading yet. This is another technique by Intel to regulate the market, or the hyper chip a premium or server chip with 64 Bit extensions.
There’s software packages out there that help you monitor CPU & motherboard temperature, as well as fan speed. These software utilities can either show readings on demand, or they can be left running in your system tray, displaying temperatures and warnings… These utilities rely on new motherboards with Temperature sensors built into the motherboard. Most high-end motherboards manufactured in the last few years have this capability, some even have the temperature and fan speed readings in the BIOS as well.
Motherboard Monitor -Motherboard Monitor (MBM) is a tool that will display information from the sensor chip on your motherboard in your Windows system tray. MBM supports a wide range of Chipsets & Sensor Chip combinations.
WCPUID – WCPUID is a program that displays detailed information about the CPU in your system.
This overview guide is just that, an overview guide to introduce you to the concept of overclocking. Nowadays overclocking is almost a science, there is so much to it, I could get very detailed on all these topics I’ve brought up, and there are even some others I haven’t mentioned. Good Luck!
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